Reflection / ๋ฐ˜์ถ”

I originally planned the mobile as a piece on metacognition, as it apparently is. Then I was about to accompany it with an essay about how we deliberate and reach a decision, which I studied during my PhD.

But while I was making it, I also realized that I had ideas like this, and others, from when I was little. I felt like I’ve only made it now because now I have more experience executing such ideas.

In that sense, the mobile could be also about growth: a larger self looking back on the little selves. Indeed, metacognition, or evaluation of one’s own thinking, can be one way for learning and growth for humans and machines. For example, if you were sure you would be invited to a friend’s birthday and if you were not, you would wonder about the reason and might learn more about what happened to the friend or to your friendship. That’s different from when you were unsure about getting the invitation to begin with, in which case being not invited wouldn’t mean much.ย Therefore, the sense of being sure, or confidence, is a form of metacognition that can help learning. Machines use confidence to learn as well: agreement between the graded sense of confidence and the all-or-none outcomes can beย mathematically expressed as “cross entropy“, which is a standard measureย used in training machines.

Back to the mobile, I debated whether to use wires or paper, but chose paper because each figure is planar. I glued several sheets together to reinforce them. If someone wants it in a more permanent form, I’d like to try 3D printing it.

์›๋ž˜๋Š” ๋ฉ”ํƒ€-์ธ์ง€์— ๊ด€ํ•œ ๋ชจ๋นŒ๋กœ ๊ณ„ํšํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์ง€๊ธˆ๋„ ๊ทธ๋ ‡๊ฒŒ ๋ณผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์„ค๋ช…์œผ๋กœ๋Š” ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ๊ณ ๋ฏผํ•˜๊ณ  ๊ฒฐ๋ก ์— ๋„๋‹ฌํ•˜๋Š”์ง€์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด, ๋‚ด๊ฐ€ ๋ฐ•์‚ฌ๊ณผ์ • ๋•Œ ์—ฐ๊ตฌํ–ˆ๋˜ ๋‚ด์šฉ์„ ๊ณ๋“ค์—ฌ ์“ธ ์ƒ๊ฐ์ด์—ˆ๋‹ค.

ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ๋ชจ๋นŒ์„ ๋งŒ๋“œ๋Š” ๋™์•ˆ, ์–ด๋ฆด ๋•Œ๋„ ์ด๋Ÿฐ ์•„์ด๋””์–ด๋ฅผ ํฌํ•จํ•ด ์—ฌ๋Ÿฌ ์•„์ด๋””์–ด๋“ค์ด ์žˆ์—ˆ๋˜ ๊ฒƒ์ด ๊ธฐ์–ต๋‚ฌ๋‹ค. ์ด์ œ์•ผ ์ด ๋ชจ๋นŒ์„ ๋งŒ๋“ค๊ฒŒ ๋œ ๊ฒƒ์€, ์ด์ œ์„œ์•ผ ๊ทธ ์•„์ด๋””์–ด๋ฅผ ์‹คํ˜„ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ฒŒ ๋˜์–ด์„œ๋ผ๋Š” ์ƒ๊ฐ์ด ๋“ค์—ˆ๋‹ค.

๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ ์˜๋ฏธ์—์„œ, ์ด ๋ชจ๋นŒ์€ ์„ฑ์žฅ์— ๊ด€ํ•œ ์ž‘ํ’ˆ์ผ ์ˆ˜๋„ ์žˆ๊ฒ ๋‹ค: ํฐ ์ž์‹ ์ด ์ž‘์€ ์ž์‹ ๋“ค์„ ๋ฐ˜์ถ”ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ๋ฉ”ํƒ€-์ธ์ง€, ํ˜น์€ ์Šค์Šค๋กœ์˜ ์ƒ๊ฐ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ํŒ๋‹จ์€ ์‹ค์ œ๋กœ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์ด๋‚˜ ๊ธฐ๊ณ„๊ฐ€ ๋ฐฐ์šฐ๊ณ  ์„ฑ์žฅํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐ ๋„์›€์ด ๋œ๋‹ค. ์˜ˆ์ปจ๋Œ€ ์–ด๋–ค ์นœ๊ตฌ์˜ ์ƒ์ผํŒŒํ‹ฐ์— ์ดˆ๋Œ€๋  ๊ฑฐ๋ผ๊ณ  ํ™•์‹ ํ–ˆ๋Š”๋ฐ ์ดˆ๋Œ€๋ฐ›์ง€ ๋ชปํ–ˆ๋‹ค๋ฉด, ๊ทธ ์นœ๊ตฌ๋‚˜ ์นœ๊ตฌ์™€์˜ ์šฐ์ •์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด ๋‹ค์‹œ ์ƒ๊ฐํ•ด๋ณด๊ณ  ๋ญ”๊ฐ€๋ฅผ ๋” ๋ฐฐ์šธ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์„ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ์ดˆ๋Œ€๋ฐ›์„์ง€ ์—ฌ๋ถ€๊ฐ€ ์• ์ดˆ์— ๋ถˆํ™•์‹คํ–ˆ๋‹ค๋ฉด, ์ดˆ๋Œ€๋ฅผ ๋ชป ๋ฐ›์•„๋„ ๋ณ„ ๋œป์ด ์—†์—ˆ๋‹ค๊ณ  ์—ฌ๊ธธ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ์ด๋ ‡๊ฒŒ ์ž์‹ ๊ฐ์€ ๋ฐฐ์›€์„ ๋„์šธ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ๋ฉ”ํƒ€์ธ์ง€์˜ ํ•œ ํ˜•ํƒœ์ด๋‹ค. ์ž์‹ ๊ฐ์€ ๊ธฐ๊ณ„๋“ค์˜ ํ›ˆ๋ จ์—๋„ ์“ฐ์ธ๋‹ค:ย  ์ž์‹ ๊ฐ๊ณผ ์‹ค์ œ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ ์‚ฌ์ด์˜ ์ผ์น˜๋„๋Š” ์ˆ˜ํ•™์ ์œผ๋กœ “ํฌ๋กœ์Šค ์—”ํŠธ๋กœํ”ผ“๋กœ ํ‘œํ˜„๋  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ, ์ด๋Š” ๊ธฐ๊ณ„๋“ค์„ ํ›ˆ๋ จํ•  ๋•Œ ์ผ์ƒ์ ์œผ๋กœ ์“ฐ์ด๋Š” ์ฒ™๋„์ด๋‹ค.

๋ชจ๋นŒ๋กœ ๋Œ์•„์™€์„œ, ์ฒ ์‚ฌ๋ฅผ ์“ธ์ง€ ์ข…์ด๋ฅผ ์“ธ์ง€ ๊ณ ๋ฏผํ•˜๋‹ค๊ฐ€, ๊ฐ ์ธ๋ฌผ์˜ ๋””์ž์ธ์ด ํ‰๋ฉด์ ์ด๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์— ์ข…์ด๋ฅผ ์“ฐ๊ธฐ๋กœ ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์ข…์ด ๋ช‡ ์žฅ์„ ํ•จ๊ป˜ ๋ถ™์—ฌ์„œ ๋‹จ๋‹จํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์„ธ์šธ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋„๋ก ๋งŒ๋“ค์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๋” ํŠผํŠผํ•œ ๋ฒ„์ „์„ ์›ํ•˜๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค๋ฉด 3D ํ”„๋ฆฐํŒ…์œผ๋กœ ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด ๋ณด๊ณ  ์‹ถ๋‹ค.

YK 2019.

Paper Wings & A Felt Halo for Halloween Angel / ํ• ๋กœ์œˆ ์ฒœ์‚ฌ – ์ข…์ด ๋‚ ๊ฐœ & ํŽ ํŠธ ํ›„๊ด‘

My daughter wanted to be an angel this Halloween, so we made wings and a halo together.

Halo: We sewed a leftover piece of felt, first making a tube and then stitching it on alternating sides for a scintillating look.ย We first thought we’d make one floating over her head with wire, but I worried that it would be fragile, and she worried that it would look “childish”. So we ended up having it sit directly on her hair. Fortunately, the yellow worked well on her dark hair.

Wings: At first we thought of using real feathers on clothes on a wire frame. But we quickly realized that the feathers wouldn’t stick very well, and putting clothes on a wire frame may need a lot of work. So we instead made the wing with cardboard and feathers with embossed paper. The embossed paper worked wonders – it looked warm and soft. We painted the bottom blades of the wings (instead of covering them with paper feathers) to give them some sense of depth. We made straps out of leftover towels (not shown in the photos), so that she can wear them like a bag. On the left is the front side of the wings; on the right, back.

She was very happy wearing them and was anxious if we’d throw them away after Halloween. So we decided to keep them for decoration.ย It took 2-3 nights to make them, but it was rewarding.

๋”ธ์•„์ด๊ฐ€ ํ• ๋กœ์œˆ์— ์ฒœ์‚ฌ๊ฐ€ ๋˜๊ณ  ์‹ถ์–ดํ•ด์„œ ๋‚ ๊ฐœ์™€ ํ›„๊ด‘์„ ํ•จ๊ป˜ ๋งŒ๋“ค์—ˆ๋‹ค.

ํ›„๊ด‘: ๋‚จ์€ ํŽ ํŠธ ์ฒœ ์กฐ๊ฐ์œผ๋กœ ๋งŒ๋“ค์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๋จผ์ € ๊ธธ๋‹ค๋ž€ ํŠœ๋ธŒ ๋ชจ์–‘์œผ๋กœ ๋งŒ๋“  ๋’ค ์˜†๋ถ€๋ถ„์„ ์ด์ชฝ ์ €์ชฝ ๋ฒˆ๊ฐˆ์•„๊ฐ€๋ฉฐ ๊ฟฐ๋งค์–ด ๋ฐ˜์ง์ด๋Š” ๋ชจ์–‘์„ ๋‚ด์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์ฒ˜์Œ์—๋Š” ์ฒ ์‚ฌ๋กœ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ ์œ„์— ๋–  ์žˆ๊ฒŒ ๋งŒ๋“ค๊นŒ ํ–ˆ๋Š”๋ฐ, ๋‚˜๋Š” ์•ฝํ•ด์„œ ๋ง๊ฐ€์งˆ๊นŒ ์—ผ๋ คํ–ˆ๊ณ , ์•„์ด๋Š” ๋„ˆ๋ฌด “์• ๊ฐ™์•„” ๋ณด์ผ๊นŒ๋ด ์—ผ๋ คํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ฒฐ๊ตญ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ ์œ„์— ๋ ์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ๋ฐ”๋กœ ๋‘๋ฅด๊ธฐ๋กœ ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ๋‹คํ–‰ํžˆ ๋…ธ๋ž€ ์ƒ‰์ด ๊ฒ€์€ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ ์ƒ‰์— ์ž˜ ์–ด์šธ๋ ธ๋‹ค.

๋‚ ๊ฐœ: ์ฒ˜์Œ์—๋Š” ์ง„์งœ ๊นƒํ„ธ์„ ์ฒ ์‚ฌ ํ‹€์— ์”Œ์šด ์ฒœ ์œ„์— ๋ถ™์ผ๊นŒ ํ–ˆ๋Š”๋ฐ, ๊ณง ๊นƒํ„ธ์ด ์ž˜ ๋–จ์–ด์งˆ ๊ฒƒ์ด๊ณ , ์ฒœ์„ ์ฒ ์‚ฌ์— ์”Œ์šฐ๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ ํž˜๋“œ๋ฆฌ๋ผ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์„ ๊ณง ๊นจ๋‹ฌ์•˜๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ž˜์„œ ๋Œ€์‹  ๋‚ ๊ฐœ๋ฅผ ๊ณจํŒ์ง€๋กœ ๋งŒ๋“ค๊ณ  ๊นƒํ„ธ์€ ์˜ฌ๋ก๋ณผ๋กํ•œ ์ข…์ด๋กœ ๋งŒ๋“ค์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์˜ฌ๋ก๋ณผ๋กํ•œ ์ข…์ด๊ฐ€ ๋”ฐ๋œปํ•˜๊ณ  ๋ถ€๋“œ๋Ÿฌ์›Œ ๋ณด์—ฌ ๋”ฑ ์ข‹์•˜๋‹ค. ๋‚ ๊ฐœ์˜ ์•„๋žซ๋‚  ๋ถ€๋ถ„์€ ์ข…์ด ๊นƒํ„ธ์„ ๋ถ™์ด๋Š” ๋Œ€์‹  ๋ฌผ๊ฐ์œผ๋กœ ์น ํ•ด์„œ ๊นŠ์ด๊ฐ์„ ์ฃผ์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์–ด๊นจ๋ˆ์€ ๋‚จ์€ ์ˆ˜๊ฑด์„ ์ž˜๋ผ ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด์„œ ๊ฐ€๋ฐฉ์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ๋งฌ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ฒŒ ํ–ˆ๋‹ค (์‚ฌ์ง„์—๋Š” ์—†์Œ). ์‚ฌ์ง„ ์™ผ์ชฝ์€ ๋‚ ๊ฐœ์˜ ์•ž๋ถ€๋ถ„, ์˜ค๋ฅธ์ชฝ์€ ๋’ท๋ถ€๋ถ„์ด๋‹ค.

์•„์ด๋Š” ๋‚ ๊ฐœ๋ฅผ ๋ฌด์ฒ™ ์ข‹์•„ํ–ˆ๊ณ , ํ• ๋กœ์œˆ์ด ๋๋‚˜๋ฉด ๋ฒ„๋ฆด๊นŒ๋ด ๊ฑฑ์ •ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ž˜์„œ ์žฅ์‹์šฉ์œผ๋กœ ๊ฐ–๊ณ  ์žˆ๊ธฐ๋กœ ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ๋งŒ๋“œ๋Š” ๋ฐ๋Š” 2-3์ผ ๋ฐค์ด ๊ฑธ๋ ธ์ง€๋งŒ ๋ณด๋žŒ ์žˆ์—ˆ๋‹ค.

*This could be considered as “Transformation” of cardboards into a costume.

Dolphin Lamp / ๋Œ๊ณ ๋ž˜ ๋žจํ”„

Asian paper and aluminum wires. Made back in 2014. Donated to daughter’s classroom.

ํ•œ์ง€์™€ ์•Œ๋ฃจ๋ฏธ๋Š„ ์ฒ ์‚ฌ. 2014๋…„์— ๋งŒ๋“ฌ. ๋”ธ ๊ต์‹ค์— ๊ธฐ์ฆ.

Incense Holder – Leaf

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